Social Agreement Principles Of John Locke

For Hobbes, the need for absolute authority, in the form of a sovereign, arose from the absolute brutality of the state of nature. The state of nature was totally unbearable, and rational people would be willing to submit even to absolute authority to escape it. For John Locke, 1632-1704, the state of nature is a completely different kind of place, and his argument about the social contract and the nature of men`s relationship to authority is therefore quite different. While Locke Hobbes uses the methodical device of the state of nature, like virtually all theorists of the social contract, he uses it at a completely different end. Locke`s arguments for the social contract and the right of citizens to revolt against their king had a huge influence on the democratic revolutions that followed, especially on Thomas Jefferson and the founders of the United States. This racist treaty is, to some extent, a meta-treaty that determines the limits of personality and the parameters of inclusion and exclusion in all other treaties that come after. It manifests itself both formally and informally. It is an agreement, originally among European men at the beginning of modern times, to identify themselves as „white“ and therefore completely human and to identify all others, especially the natives with whom they began to come into contact, as „others“: non-white and therefore not entirely human. Race is therefore not only a social construct, as others have argued, but above all a political construct created to serve a specific political purpose and the political objectives of a particular group. The contract allows some people to treat other people as well as the areas they occupy as resources to be exploited. The enslavement of millions of Africans and the appropriation of America by the people are examples of this racial treaty in history (such as Locke`s assertion that the Indians did not have the land they lived on because they did not exploit them and therefore did not own them). This contract is not hypothetical, as Hobbes describes the argument in his Leviathan.

It is a real treaty, or a number of contracts that are made by real men of history. It is found in documents such as the papal bulls and Locke`s writings on the Indians and has had its effect in historical events such as european discovery trips and the colonization of Africa, Asia and America. The Treaty on Race allows and justifies certain people because of their alleged superiority in exploiting the peoples, countries and resources of other races.